It shows just how sticky gender roles can be — and how much slower they are to change than the way people live their lives. Women are now Adidas Superstar Femme Blanche much more likely to have an education and a career. Yet across Adidas ZX Flux Womens most marriages, they still do much more child care and housework than their husbands, and men still feel strong pressure to be the family breadwinner.Today, women earn more than men in almost a quarter of couples, according to the new study and Adidas NMD Womens previous research, up from 18 percent in the 1980s. Yet 71 percent of people say that to be a good husband, men should be able to financially support a family, a Pew Research Center survey found last year. Only one-third said that about women.Marriage therapists Nike Air Max 95 Mujer say marriages can become shakier when women earn more than men if men feel insecure or women Nike Air Zoom Spiridon Mujerlose respect for them. Economists say it’s one reason the loss of working-class jobs for men has led to such discontent — and to fewer marriages.
“Blokes are threatened by Nike Air Max 90 Womens wives who earn more, which surprises nobody but is interesting that Nike Air Pegasus 89 Womens you can actually find it in the data,” said Justin Wolfers, who studies the economics of the family at the University of Michigan and is an Upshot contributor.The census researchers compared reports of opposite-sex spouses’ earnings in survey answers Nike Air Max 95 Femme and tax filings from 2003 to 2013. The couples were between the ages of 25 and 54, and at least one partner worked for pay.They found that the 23 percent of couples in which the woman earned more also differed in other ways. The women earned more than Nike Air Zoom Pegasus 34 Mujer double the average earnings of women who did not outearn their husbands. They were also more likely Adidas Superstar Femme to have college degrees, and to be black.Age and geography did not make a difference — couples in which the woman earned more were as common in liberal cities as in Nike Air Max 2017 Womens the conservative South.The results show how much social norms can influence Adidas ZX Flux Womens the answers people give in surveys. “It raises rather metaphysical questions for all social scientists: What happens when the phenomenon you’re studying affects the data you use to study it?” Mr. Wolfers said. The Census Bureau said it was working Nike Air Max 90 Femme to improve the quality of survey results on earnings by comparing them with other reported sources.
A large study by economists at the University of Chicago, using census data from 1970 to 2000, found that marriages in which the woman earned more were Adidas ZX Flux Womens less likely to form in the first place, and more likely to end in divorce. Women who outearned their Adidas NMD Womens husbands were more likely to seek jobs beneath their potential, they found, and to do significantly more housework and child care than their husbands — perhaps Adidas NMD Womens to make their husbands feel less threatened.“When the gender norm is violated, Nike Air Max 2017 Femme there is some compensating behavior to try to undo some of the utility loss experienced by the husband,” said Marianne Bertrand, an author of the study and an economist at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business.Certain gender attitudes, Adidas Superstar Femme Rose at least about women, seem to be slowly catching up with people’s behavior. Research has found that among more recent marriages, women with higher earnings are no longer more likely to divorce.Yet expectations about men have been slower to change. Adidas ZX 750 Womens When men are unemployed or underemployed, women are less likely to consider them marriage material, and more Nike Air Presto Womens likely to want a divorce.Get the best of The Upshot’s news, analysis and graphics about politics, policy and everyday life.She joined The Times in 2008Adidas ZX 750 Womens and was part of a team that won a Pulitzer Prize in 2018 for public service for reporting Adidas ZX 850 Womens on workplace sexual harassment issues.
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